I need technical research article for subject below; max 2000 words.
SELECTION OF MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR HYDROCYCLONE
Cyclone construction can vary significantly from one manufacturer to the next, but the vast majority of designs have metal housings with removable liners. The material that is considered to be the most appropriate for the liner might vary from one application to the next. In order to achieve optimal wear characteristics, it is common practise to employ the use of multiple different lining materials inside the same cyclone.
Natural gum rubber is the most frequently used material since it is non-fragile, reasonably inexpensive, and extremely durable. When temperatures are higher than 60 OC or the slurry contains significant amounts of hydrocarbons like oil or other harmful substances, gum rubber is not acceptable for use.
The apex opening and other locations that experience extreme abrasion now have cyclone liners made of ceramic materials. These include locations like the vortex finder and bottom cone liner. Additionally, Nihard has shown to be a reliable wear material, particularly for vortex finders and other applications requiring both strength and abrasion resistance. Neoprene and nitrite are two other elastomer materials that are used when there are hydrocarbons present or when the temperature is higher than 60O C. Particularly in locations where the solids are rather fine, urethane has gained appeal.