1. Translate the next character in the message into its ASCII code. ASCII (as mentioned in Chapter 4) assigns a unique integer value to each character. For example, the ASCII value for the letter A is 65, whereas the ASCII value for the letter B is 66.
2. Convert the ASCII value from decimal to binary. To support 256 distinct ASCII codes, we need to use eight binary digits (bits) per character. The 8-bit binary representation of ASCII 65 (the letter A) is 01000001. The 8-bit binary representation of 66 (the letter B) is 01000010.
3. If encryption is being used, then we apply an encryption algorithm to the binary string produced in Step 2. Encryption is frequently used when sending messages across a network. This is to prevent the information from being read by unauthorized individuals either during transit or when it arrives at the receiving node. We will have more to say about encryption in Part 2. In this lab, we use a very simple encryption algorithm that does the following two things:
1. Subtracts an integer quantity from the original binary number
2. Shifts the resulting bits to the left or right a fixed number of places
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